In this article you will know about the generation of the computer, what is the full form of the computer, who invented the computer and how many generations of computers and what happened in which generation?
The word computer is derived from the Latin word “compute” which means to calculate. The computer is an electronic device that takes data as input and processes it and provides the results to us in the form of output.
What is the full form of COMPUTER
The full form of computer is Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research. Charles Babbage thought of making an automatic computer system in 1837, but due to lack of money, he could not complete it.
Who invented computer
The computer was invented by Charles Babbage, he made the first mechanical computer in 1822, based on which all the computers of today are working.
Charles Babbage is called the father of the modern computer, although initially, he liked mathematics very much, so he made a computer machine to solve a big maths calculation.
According to the time, 5 generations of computers have come so far.
|First-generation of computer||1940 to 1954|
|Second-generation of computer||1954 to 1964|
|Third-generation of computer||1964 to 1971|
|Fourth-generation of computer||1971 to 1980|
|Fifth-generation of computer||1980 to present|
First-generation of computer
The period of the first generation of computers was from 1940 to 1954. These early computers used vacuum tubes, which resulted in them being very heavy and the size of a room.
These first-generation computers relied on machine language which is the most basic programming language and which can only be understood by the computer.
These computers were limited to solving only one problem at a time (you could do only one task at a time in it). A computer of the first generation used to come in a whole room, it was so big.
Its materials used to generate a lot of heat, it took a lot of electricity for them, and later the generation of too much heat became the reason for their breakdown.
The special thing about the first generation is that they used vacuum tubes, were unreliable, could not be trusted much, supported only the language of the machine, were very expensive, generated a lot of heat They had slow input and slow output, very large size, required AC, were non-portable (it was not possible to move them from one place to another) and consumed a lot of electricity.
First-generation computers were ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, and IBM-650.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was completed in 1945.
The ENIAC was first put to work for practical purposes on December 10, 1945, and the ENIAC was formally dedicated on February 15, 1946, at the University of Pennsylvania.
|ENIAC||Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer||invented by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert|
|UNIVAC||Universal Automatic Computer||invented by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly|
|EDVAC||Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer||invented by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly|
|IBM-701||Manufactured by IBM|
|IBM-650||Manufactured by IBM|
Second-generation of computer
The period of the second generation of computers was between 1954 and 1964. Transistors were used in this generation, which was very cheap and used less power and their size was quite compact.
Assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, and COBOL were used in this generation. The best processing and multiprogramming operating system was used in the computer.
They were more reliable and faster than the machines of the first generation of vacuum tubes. This generation used magnetic cores for primary memory and magnetic tapes and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.
The special feature of the second generation was that transistors were used in it, were more reliable than the first generation, their size was smaller than the first generation, produced less heat than the first generation, and compared to the first generation Consumed less power and were slightly faster than the first generation but were very expensive, required AC and supported machines and assembly language.
Second-generation computers were IBM 1620, IBM 7094, CDC 1604, CDC 3600, UNIVAC 1108.
|CDC 1604||invented by Seymour Cray (48-bit computer)|
|UNIVAC 1108||invented by Sperry Rand|
|CDC 3600||invented by Seymour Cray|
|IBM 1620||Manufactured by IBM|
|IBM 7094||Manufactured by IBM|
Third-generation of computer
The period of the third generation of computers was from 1964 to 1971. In the third generation computers, integrated circuits (ICs) were used in place of transistors. The Integrated Circuit (IC) was invented by Jack Kilby. This invention made computers small in size, reliable and efficient.
These were the first computers where users used keyboards and monitors. This enabled these machines to run multiple applications simultaneously using a central program.
Remote processing, time-sharing, and multiprogramming operating systems were used in the third generation. During this generation, high-level programming languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, Basic, Algol 68, etc. were used.
The special features of the third generation computers were that integrated circuits (IC) were used in it, were more reliable than the previous two generations, were smaller in size, produced the least heat, were fast, and their maintenance was very low. But it was expensive, required AC and consumed less electricity, supported high-level language.
Third-generation computers were ICL 2900, Honeywell-6000, IBM-360 series, IBM 370, PDP-11.
|ICL 2900||Manufactured by ICL in 1974|
|Honeywell-6000||Manufactured by Honeywell International, Inc. from 1970 to 1989|
|IBM-360 series||Manufactured by IBM|
|IBM 370||Manufactured by IBM|
|PDP-11||Manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation|
Fourth-generation of computer
The period of the fourth generation of computers was from 1971 to 1980. A Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuit was used in the fourth-generation computer. In the VLSI circuit, about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements are placed on a single chip.
For this reason, it was possible to make a microcomputer in this fourth generation. Fourth-generation computers were more powerful, compact, reliable, and cheaper.
The result was that it gave birth to the personal computer i.e. PC revolution. Time-sharing, real-time networks, and distributed operating systems were used in this generation.
All high-level languages like C, C++, etc were used in this generation. For the first time in 1981, IBM made a computer specifically designed for home use, and later in 1994 Macintosh models were made by Apple.
Microprocessors have advanced greatly in terms of a low size and high processing power. The increased power of these small computers means they can be networked (linked). Eventually, the Internet was born and grew rapidly.
During this period, other main advances such as the graphical user interface (GUI), and mouse and laptop capabilities were accompanied by a significant increase in hand-held devices.
The special feature of the fourth generation is that VLSI technology was used in it, it is very cheap, portable, and reliable, it used PC, its size was very small, the Internet was introduced, network area development took place and the computer became easily available.
Fourth-generation computers were DEC 10, STAR 1000, CRAY-1 (Super Computer), and CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer).
|DEC-10 (PDP-10, later marketed as the DECsystem-10)||Manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation|
|STAR 1000||Manufactured by Control data corporation|
|CRAY-1 (Super Computer)||Manufactured by Cray Inc. a subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise|
|CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)||Manufactured by Cray Inc. a subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (Designer: Steve Chen)|
Fifth-generation of computers
The period of the fifth generation of computers is going on from 1980 till today. In the fifth generation, ULSI technology changed to (ultra large-scale integration) technology. It is based on fifth-generation processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software.
AI is an emerging branch of computer science that is exploring ways to make computers that think like humans. All high-level languages like C, C++, Java, and Dot Net are used in this generation.
Scientists are constantly working to increase the processing power of computers. They are trying to make a computer with a real brain with the help of advanced programming and technology.
AI involves developing robotics, networks, games, and expert systems that can take decisions in real-life situations.
The special feature of the fifth generation is that ULSI technology was used in it, artificial intelligence was developed, natural language processing was developed, advanced parallel processing was done, and progress was made in superconductor technology.
More user-friendly interface with multimedia features, very powerful and compact computers became available at affordable rates. The fifth-generation computers are desktops, laptops, notebooks, ultrabooks, and Chromebooks.